Probability
I have my students do activities with dice, coins, spinners, cards, colored cubes, etc. In our dice activity, we first list all the possible outcomes of tossing 2 dice and adding them. It comes out to be 21 total possible outcomes. I ask them to tell me how many ways the sum of 5 can be rolled (2,3) and (4,1). I show them how to write the probability of rolling a 5 like this: P(5) = 2 out of 21 and so forth. I ask them several questions while looking at the list we generated. By looking at the list, they predict which sum will show up most often. Then, I give them a chart with all the possible sums and 2 dice, and let them try out their predictions.
Each activity begins with listing all the possible outcomes. I have a spinner that has the numerals 0-9. I may ask them what the probability would be of spinning an odd number. We first list all the odd numbers on the spinner as the possible outcomes (1,3,5,7,9). So the P(odd) = 5 out of 10 or 1/2.
If you will email me, I can send you some activity sheets.