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push-in vs pull-out



Senior Member
Don't take this as fact, this is my opinion based on my years of teaching and the teachers I had to work with.

I think push-in can really benefit the students, providing a certain number of factors are present. 1) There is high-quality, small group reading instruction geared to the students' reading abilities. 2) Teacher is not territorial about the classroom, and is welcoming to the Title I teacher. 3) Teacher is not leaving the room when the Title I teacher appears. 4) Title I teacher is responsible for the identified Title I students and their learning in a supplemental situation.

I have had to work around those obstacles. I do small group instruction, pull-out. For some of my students, it's the only high-quality reading instruction they get in a day, despite regulations to the contrary. That's reality. The best thing to do is what's best for the students. You would have to try to assess what you are going into and decide.

In order to counter the "stigma" of being pulled out, I work hard to make my reading groups fun, to the point that I have other students begging to be let into my reading groups. I'm not bribing the kids with candy or gum, and we rarely play games. When we do, they are games that deal with making or reading words. I give the kids what they don't know they crave, and that's individual attention. Every bit of reading instruction is geared to the student's level and needs. I listen to so many stories that you might wonder how I find time to teach. I thank every child that chooses to hug me, and I get many. I tell them often how much I love to read, and that I read everything.

I make a point of giving my director a list every December showing how much growth my students have shown in the 3 months they have have reading groups with me. The evidence always support my program, because it is what works with the teachers I have to work with, the kids I see, and how I teach.

Good luck! Let us know how you'll be doing your reading.


Full Member
push in or pull out

We have always done pull out, but this year we did a combination; we started guided reading groups in the classrooms every two weeks. Next year we will do them every week in both first and second grade. There won't be much time for any pull outs, unless it is the really low kids. I'm not sure how that will work; I will be doing Reading Recovery while the other Title I teacher will be doing pull outs.

Good luck.


push in vs. pull out

I am a Title I Reading teacher, going into my 3rd year of teaching. I am currently working on my masters in Reading and Literacy. The assignment for the class I am taking right now is to research a topic of interest. I chose reading motivation and how changing my Title I program from pull out to a combination of pull out and push in groups will encourage motivation. I have enjoyed reading the posts and wonder what you think about the motivation issue? Will changing my program to incorporate push in and pull out guided reading groups create a motivation to read within my students? Any comments would be helpful! Thanks!



3rd Grade Teacher

I am wondering if you still do the push in for your reading groups? We have been mandated to do a complete push in program and I really can't see the benefits to the students. They used to love leaving to go to their extra reading time. Now they sit in the class and often seem embarrassed that others realize how low they are. It is also very distracting to have so many groups going on at once. I am so confused, we have these wonderful reading rooms that we can't use and we all push in to the small classroom. I do not see the benefit to the students. I notice that the date is 2006, are we behind the times or is it really working? Can you offer me any hope? Thanks.

Susan S.

Title 1 Reading teacher

WOW! We are going from a pulling out to a pushing in (RTI) next year. All my research has always found that pulling out is best for kids who (1) are easily distracted, (2)considerably behind their peers, and (3) need the visuals that the Reading teacher can leave on the wall. We are all very concerned about a total pushing in for next year. Kepp us posted with your research!


Early Years Teacher

When you talk about your research, what do you mean exactly? I am trying to find arguments to convince my head that total push in is not ideal for beginners and that they still need to be pulled out, but there is not much out there.

I would appreciate if you could point me in the right direction.




reading teacher

Were there any replies with specific research supporting or refuting the push in -vs-the pull out approach for small group reading instruction/intervention? If so, please share that with me.

In my school system, it looks as if we will be asked to push in, at least for part of the school day. From what has been shared with us so far, the reading teacher at each school would collect students from each of the respective grade level classrooms- and take those individuals into one of those grade level classrooms to meet as a small group for reading intervention. We would work with one grade level at a time.

For sooooooo many reasons, I do not see how a push in program (especially as described above) would be as beneficial to my students as the pull out that I presently do with grades 1-5 in small groups of 3-5 students. As a rule, my students have real focus issues and/or are reading significantly below grade level. In my class, they are not "afraid" (due to peer observation) to ask questions or seek extra help or participate in discussions about what they are reading. I have amassed a vast treasure of leveled trade books and other materials which are stored in my room from which I can pull quickly as needed. My students see their time with me as special and their classmates in their regular classroom often beg to come too.

Thank you for anything anyone might share.
I really need research to support my observations.


Push in vs pull out

Helen I am in the same situation at my school. we are Title 1 and being asked to push in this year. I have been a reading specialist for 7 years and have always pulled students. I have my materials and supplies in my class ready for students and can adapt to what their needs are as the arise. I also have posters etc that we refer to constantly in my room. Kids beg to go with me to read in my room that do not qualfy. so those people who say it is a stigma I think are completely wrong.

So far in the 1st and second it has not been to bad going in since they are doing daily five and I am working with one group. BUT in the upper grades it has been a rocky start. One teacher even was doing a whole group writing lesson and using a fog horn timer on the smart board every 3-5 minutes. Talk about distracting. I had my students asking if we could go to my rooom to read because they could not hear. Plus those students I see are some of the ones that need the peace and quiet to concentrate due to ADD/ADHD.

Please let me know if you have found any good reserach that would support pulling out for reading intervention. My distict and my new principal are totally on board for push in, but I am not convinced and need some research to cite to them besides my own 7 years of teaching.

If anyone can help please do so.

Thanks and TEACH ON!